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GPS/GNSS Permanent Stations - Monumentation

In choosing the appropriate monument type a number of factors must be taken into consideration such as science objective, data quality, budget, available location, installation time, and environmental impact. A number of designs are available (shown in table below). Click on monument name for more detailed information.

For details on site selection and additional information on monumentation in general consider reading: Physical Site Specifications: Geodetic Site Monumentation.

  Permanent Station Photos

Monument Comparison Table

The original table can be seen here.

Type
Stability
Cost
Install Time
Labor
Foundation
Permanent
Environmental Impact
Drilled Braced              
high
high
2-4 d
4+
BR, U
Y
significant
high
med
1-2 d
2
BR
Y
moderate
Pillar              
med
low - med
1.5 d
1-2
BR, U
Y
moderate
Stainless Steel Pin
med-high*
low
1hr
1
BR, R
Y
minimal
Other              
med
low
2hr
1
BR
Y
minimal
med
low
1-2hr
1
BR
N
minimal

Install time: Estimated # of days to complete
Labor: Minumum # of people required
Foundation: BR = bedrock, U = unconsolidated, R = rooftop (parapet)
Cost: low = < $1000, med = < $5000, high = > $5000 -- Note that these are very rough approximations. The actual cost of a monument installation may vary depending upon site conditions and materials required.
Environmental Impact:

significant: large footprint, construction disturbance potentially lasting several years
moderate: modest footprint, construction disturbance small, short duration
minimal: hardly any footprint, construction disturbance negligible

*depends upon the material the pin is set within

Last modified: Sunday, 11-May-2014 17:56:18 UTC

 

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