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Borehole Strainmeter Literature

Plate Boundary Observatory Data Products

Anderson, G., K. Hodgkinson, T. Herring, D. C. Agnew (2006), Plate Boundary Observatory Data Management System Critical Design Review Version 1.2

Episodic Tremor and Slip Events

Dragert, H., and K. Wang (2011), Temporal evolution of an episodic tremor and slip event along the northern Cascadia margin, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B12406, doi:10.1029/2011JB008609

Hawthorne, J. C., and A. M. Rubin (2010), Tidal modulation of slow slip in Cascadia, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B09406, doi:10.1029/2010JB007502

Hawthorne, J. C., and A. M. Rubin (2013), Short-time scale correlation between slow slip and tremor in Cascadia, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 1316-1329, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50103

Kimura, Kazuhiro, Jun Takenaka, and Reiko Kai. 2008. Short term slow slip events detected by the strainmeters in the Tokai region and the monitoring of it, Quarterly Journal Of Seismology, 71, no. 4: 35-41

Smith, E. F., and J. Gomberg (2009), A search in strainmeter data for slow slip associated with triggered and ambient tremor near Parkfield, California, J. Geophys. Res., 114, B00A14, doi:10.1029/2008JB006040

Wang, K., H. Dragert, H. Kao, and E. Roeloffs (2008), Characterizing an “uncharacteristic” ETS event in northern Cascadia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L15303, doi:10.1029/2008GL034415

Aseismic Events

P. Bernard, H. Lyon-Caen, P. Briole, A. Deschamps, F. Boudin, K. Makropoulos, P. Papadimitriou, F. Lemeille, G. Patau, H. Billiris, D. Paradissis, K. Papazissi, H. Castarède, O. Charade, A. Nercessian, A. Avallone, F. Pacchiani, J. Zahradnik, S. Sacks, A. Linde (2006), Seismicity, deformation and seismic hazard in the western rift of Corinth: New insights from the Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL), Tectonophysics, 426, Issues 1–2, 7-30, ISSN 0040-1951, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2006.02.012. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040195106002642)

Gao, S. S., P. G. Silver, and A. T. Linde (2000), Analysis of deformation data at Parkfield, California: Detection of a long-term strain transient, J. Geophys. Res., 105(B2), 2955-2967, doi:10.1029/1999JB900383

Goulty, N. R., and R. Gilman (1978), Repeated creep events on the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, California, Recorded by a strainmeter array, J. Geophys. Res., 83(B11), 5415-5419, doi:10.1029/JB083iB11p05415

Langbein, J. O., R. L. Gwyther, R. H. G. Hart, and M. T. Gladwin (1999), Slip-rate increase at Parkfield in 1993 detected by high-precision EDM and borehole tensor strainmeters, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, No. 16, 2529-2532

Linde, A. T., M. T. Gladwin, M. J. S. Johnston, R. L. Gwyther, and R. G. Bilham (1996), A slow earthquake sequence on the San Andreas Fault, Nature, 383, 65-68, doi:10.1038/383065a0

Coseismic Deformation

Amoruso, A., and L. Crescentini (1999), Coseismic and aseismic strain offsets recorded by the Gran Sasso strainmeter, Physics And Chemistry Of The Earth, Part A: Solid Earth And Geodesy, 24, No. 2, 101-104

Borcherdt, Roger D., Malcolm J. S. Johnston, Gary Glassmoyer, and Christopher Dietel (2006, Recordings of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake on the General Earthquake Observation System array; implications for earthquake precursors, fault rupture, and coseismic strain changes, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 96, No. 4B, S73-S89

Johnston, Malcolm J. S., Y. Sasai, G. D. Egbert, and R. J. Mueller (2006), Seismomagnetic effects from the long-awaited 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 96, No. 4B, S206-S220

Langbein, John, J. R. Murray, and H. Andrew Snyder (2006), Coseismic and initial postseismic deformation from the 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake, observed by Global Positioning System, electronic distance meter, creepmeters, and borehole strainmeters, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 96, No. 4B, S304-S320

Tides and Calibration

Hart, R. H. G., M. T. Gladwin, R. L. Gwyther, D. C. Agnew, and F. K. Wyatt (1996), Tidal calibration of borehole strain meters: Removing the effects of small-scale inhomogeneity, J. Geophys. Res., 101(B11), 25553-25571, doi:10.1029/96JB02273

Hodgkinson, K., J. Langbein, B. Henderson, D. Mencin, and A. Borsa (2013), Tidal calibration of plate boundary observatory borehole strainmeters, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 447-458, doi:10.1029/2012JB009651

Langbein, J. (2010), Effect of error in theoretical Earth tide on calibration of borehole strainmeters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L21303, doi:10.1029/2010GL044454

Roeloffs, E. (2010), Tidal calibration of Plate Boundary Observatory borehole strainmeters: Roles of vertical and shear coupling, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B06405, doi:10.1029/2009JB006407

Takemoto, Shuzo, Min Lee, Chih-Yen Chen, Ming-Chien Kao, Atsushi Mukai, Takeshi Ikawa, Tohru Kuroda, and Taisuke Abe (2006), Tidal strain observations in Chu-Chie, Taiwan, Journal Of Geodynamics, 41, No. 1-3: 198-204


Chardot, L., B. Voight, R. Foroozan, S. Sacks, A. Linde, R. Stewart, D. Hidayat, A. Clarke, D. Elsworth, N. Fournier, J.-C. Komorowski, G. Mattioli, R. S. J. Sparks, and C. Widiwijayanti (2010), Explosion dynamics from strainmeter and microbarometer observations, Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, 2008–2009, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L00E24, doi:10.1029/2010GL044661

Voight, B., D. Hidayat, S. Sacks, A. Linde, L. Chardot, A. Clarke, D. Elsworth, R. Foroozan, P. Malin, G. Mattioli, N. McWhorter, E. Shalev, R. S. J. Sparks, C. Widiwijayanti, and S. R. Young, Unique strainmeter observations of Vulcanian explosions, Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, July 2003, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L00E18, doi:10.1029/2010GL042551.

Seiches and Meterological Signals

Mattioli, G.S., B. Voight, A.T. Linde, I.S. Sacks, P. Watts, C. Widiwijayanti, S.R. Young, D. Hidayat, D. Elsworth, P.E. Malin, E. Shalev, E. Van Boskirk, W. Johnston, R.S.J. Sparks, J. Neuberg, V. Bass, P. Dunkley, R. Herd, T. Syers, P. Williams and D. Williams (2007), Unique and remarkable dilatometer measurements of pyroclastic flow–generated tsunamis, Geology, 35, 25-28, doi:10.1130/G22931A.1

Luttrell, K., D. Mencin, O. Francis, and S. Hurwitz (2013), Constraints on the upper crustal magma reservoir beneath Yellowstone Caldera inferred from lake-seiche induced strain observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 501-506, doi:10.1002/grl.50155

ChiChing Liu, Alan T. Linde and I. Selwyn Sacks (2009), Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons, Nature, 459, 833-836, doi:10.1038/nature08042


Agnew, Duncan Carr (2007), Before PBO; an overview of continuous strain and tilt measurements in the United States, Journal Of The Geodetic Society Of Japan, 53, No. 2, 157-182

Agnew, Duncan Carr (1986), Strainmeters and Tiltmeters, Rev. Geophys., 24, 579-624

Agnew, Duncan Carr, and K. Hodgkinson (2007), Designing compact causal digital filters for low-frequency strainmeter data, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 97, No. 1B, 91-99

Barbour, Andrew J., and D. C. Agnew (2011), Noise levels on plate boundary observatory borehole strainmeters in Southern California, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 101, No. 5, 2453-2466

Furuya, Itsuo, and A. Fukudome (1986), Characteristics of borehole volume strainmeter and its application to seismology, Journal Of Physics Of The Earth, 34, No. 3, 257-296

Gladwin, Michael T. (1984), High precision multi component borehole deformation monitoring, Rev. Sci. Instrumentation, 55, 2011-2016

Gladwin, Michael T. and R. Hart (1985), Design Parameters for Borehole Strain Instrumentation, PAGEOPH, 123, 59-80.c

Gomberg, Joan, and D. C. Agnew (1996), The accuracy of seismic estimates of dynamic strains; an evaluation using strainmeter and seismometer data from Pinon Flat Observatory, California, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 86, No. 1, Part A: 212-220

Goulty, N. R. (1976), Strainmeters and tiltmeters in geophysics, Tectonophysics, 34, No. 3-4: 245-256

King, G., and R. Bilham (1976), A geophysical wire strainmeter, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 66, No. 6, 2039-2047

Kroner, C., T. Jahr, S. Kuhlmann, and K. D. Fischer (2005), Pressure-induced noise on horizontal seismometer and strainmeter records evaluated by finite element modelling, Geophysical Journal International, 161, No. 1, 167-178

Langbein, J. (2010), Computer algorithm for analyzing and processing borehole strainmeter data, Comput. Geosci., 36, No. 5, 611-619, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2009.08.011

Linde, Alan T., and I. Selwyn Sacks (1995), Continuous monitoring of volcanoes with borehole strainmeters, Geophysical Monograph, 92, 171-185

Lomnitz, Cinna (1997), Frequency response of a strainmeter, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 87, No. 4, 1078-1080

Reuveni, Y., S. Kedar, S. E. Owen, A. W. Moore, and F. H. Webb (2012), Improving Sub-Daily Strain Estimates Using GPS, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2012GL051927

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